Net Present Value Calculator

Cash Flow
Year 1 :
Initial Investment
Discount Rate (%)


Net Present Value (NPV) Calculator

Welcome to our Net Present Value (NPV) Calculator, a powerful tool designed for financial analysts, business owners, and anyone looking to evaluate the profitability of investments. This calculator helps you to determine the present value of a series of cash flows that may not be consistent over time.

What is Net Present Value (NPV)?

Net Present Value is a financial metric used to assess the value of an investment by calculating the total value of a series of future cash flows in today's dollars. It subtracts the initial investment from the sum of all future cash flows discounted back to their present value.

Net Present Value (NPV) Formula

The formula for NPV is:

$$ NPV = \sum \frac{R_t}{(1+i)^t} - C_0 $$


  • \( R_t \) is the net cash inflow-outflows during a single period t.
  • \( i \) is the discount rate or return that could be earned in alternative investments.
  • \( t \) is the number of time periods.
  • \( C_0 \) is the initial investment.

How to Use the NPV Calculator

  1. Input the cash flows for each year.
  2. Enter the initial investment amount.
  3. Specify the discount rate as a percentage.

After entering these values, the calculator will provide you with the NPV of the cash flows.

Uses and Users of NPV

  • Business Owners: To evaluate the profitability of new projects or investments.
  • Investors: To assess the potential return on investment for different investment opportunities.
  • Financial Analysts: For capital budgeting and comparing financial attractiveness between projects.

Frequently Asked Questions


How Do I Calculate Net Present Value?

Use the NPV formula by discounting all expected future cash flows back to their present value and subtracting the initial investment.


What is an Example of NPV Method?

If you invest $100,000 in a project today and expect to receive $50,000 annually for the next three years, you would discount each of those cash flows back to their present value and subtract your initial $100,000.


How Do You Calculate NPV for 5 Years?

Apply the NPV formula with cash flows for each of the 5 years, using the appropriate discount rate.


How Do You Calculate NPV in Rupees?

The same as any currency: sum the present value of future cash flows in rupees and subtract the initial investment in rupees.


NPV Formula in Excel

The NPV formula in Excel is:

$$ NPV = NPV(rate, value1, [value2], ...) + initial\ investment $$

This Excel function calculates the net present value for a series of cash flows represented by the arguments value1, value2, etc., at the discount rate specified by 'rate'. The initial investment is typically added to the NPV function result because Excel's NPV function assumes that cash flows occur at the end of each period.

Why is NPV Important?

NPV provides a straightforward figure representing the estimated increase or decrease in wealth resulting from an investment, adjusted for the time value of money.


How to Calculate Discount Rate?

The discount rate is often a company’s Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) or the required rate of return for investors.


How Do You Calculate NPV and IRR?

NPV is calculated using the formula provided. IRR is the rate at which NPV equals zero and can be calculated using financial calculators or software like Excel.


What is a Good NPV?

A positive NPV indicates that the projected earnings exceed the anticipated costs, typically considered a good investment.


How to Calculate Cash Flow?

Cash flow is calculated by taking the total income and subtracting the expenses for a period.


Can NPV be Negative?

Yes, a negative NPV indicates that the project's returns would not meet the required rate of return.


What is the First Step in Determining the NPV?

Identify all cash flows associated with the investment, both incoming and outgoing.


What is an Example of a Present Value?

Present value is today's value of a future cash flow. For example, receiving $100 a year from now is worth less than $100 today.


What is the NPV Rate?

The NPV rate is the discount rate used in the NPV formula to present-value future cash flows.


Which is Better IRR or NPV?

It depends on the context; NPV provides a dollar value while IRR gives a rate of return. Both have their uses in investment appraisal.


What is NPV Discount Rate?

It is the rate used to discount future cash flows of an investment to present value.


How to Calculate Discount Rate?

It’s often calculated as WACC or an expected rate of return based on the risk of the investment.


How to Calculate Discount Factor

The formula for the discount factor is:

$$ Discount\ Factor = \frac{1}{(1 + r)^n} $$


  • \( r \) is the discount rate
  • \( n \) is the number of periods